Added: Nada Gaona - Date: 25.11.2021 18:36 - Views: 35275 - Clicks: 9221
Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Concurrent sexual partnerships play a key role in sustaining the HIV epidemic in Zimbabwe. Married couples are at an increased risk of contracting HIV from sexual networks produced by concurrent sexual partnerships. Addressing these partnerships is an international HIV prevention priority.
Our qualitative study presents the socioeconomic factors that contribute to the occurrence of concurrent sexual partnerships among married people in Zimbabwe. We conducted 36 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with married men and women in Zimbabwe in to understand the organizations of concurrent sexual partnerships. Data were analyzed using framework analysis. Our study indicates that relationship dissatisfaction played a key role in the engagement of concurrent sexual partnerships. These relationships had different levels of intimacy, which had a bearing on practicing safer sex.
Participants described three characteristics of hegemonic masculinity that contributed to the sources of dissatisfaction leading to concurrent sexual activity.
Similarly, various aspects of emphasized femininity were described as creating opportunities for the occurrence of concurrent sexual relationships. Economic status was also listed as a factor that contributed to the occurrence of concurrent sexual partnerships. Marital dissatisfaction was indicated as a contributing factor to the occurrence of concurrent sexual relationships. There were several reports of satisfying marital relationships in which affairs did not occur. Lessons from these marriages can be made part of future HIV prevention interventions targeted at preventing concurrent sexual partnerships by married couples.
Zimbabwe has successfully managed to reduce the estimated prevalence of HIV among adults aged 15—49 years from Demographic data from 16 countries examining how marital concurrency contributes to the HIV epidemic suggest that marital concurrency increases the odds of acquiring HIV for couples. This study contributes to a growing body on literature providing insight on the motivations for concurrent sexual partnerships. Our present study aimed to develop interventions to empower married Zimbabwean women to negotiate for safer sex.
This paper addresses one of the research objectives, which is to describe and explain the occurrence of concurrent sexual activities by married Zimbabwean men and women. In this paper, we describe the sociocultural context in which monogamous married men and women made transitions into and out of concurrent sexual partnerships.
We provide a summary of our research methodology here as the full study is described elsewhere. We collected qualitative data over three phases. Written informed consent to take part was obtained from all participants. The first phase consisted of interviews with HIV prevention program implementers. In the second phase, we conducted four focus groups and 36 interviews with married men and women.
Participants were defined as married if they had had a customary, court, or church wedding, or if they have been cohabiting for a long time. This is the standard definition also used for the Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey. This paper is based on the second phase of the study, which was conducted between October and December We used intensity sampling to recruit participants from an HIV prevention nongovernmental organization, a faith-based organization, and an anti-domestic violence organization.
Subsequent participants were recruited using snowballing. The first author collected data from all female participants; similarly, for cultural sensitivity, a male research assistant was employed to collect data from male participants during the second phase. Another Zimbabwean study also used male interviewers to collect information on sexual health from Zimbabwean men. We also hired a male and female researcher to facilitate the male and female focus group discussions, respectively. The female focus group facilitator was an experienced social scientist educated to postgraduate level with extensive qualitative research experience in the HIV field.
Competency was assessed after training during the pilot data collection. All the data were collected using an agreed interview guide and focus group guide which were developed using findings from an extensive literature review and the conceptual framework for the study. During the actual data collection, the first author continued to provide support by having daily meetings with the team. While a few interviews were done in English, most of the interviews and focus group discussions were conducted in Shona.
Direct verbatim translation rather than contextual translation was done simultaneously with transcription into a computer soon after data collection. Contextual translation was only used when direct translation was not meaningful. This allowed us to develop a thematic framework for coding the data which we went on to apply to the data. This allowed scrutiny of the data in order to develop the descriptive and explanatory s. Thirty-three men and 31 women participated in the second phase of the study, and their characteristics are summarized in Table 1.
Sociodemographic characteristics of interview and focus group discussion participants. Narratives by male and female participants appeared to indicate that concurrent sexual activity occurred in a cycle made up of four stages as shown in Figure 1. This cycle is not meant to be comprehensive but rather broad enough to capture the important aspects of extramarital affairs that were described.
The process of separating the stages of the extramarital affair into discrete stages, though based on logical development of analysis, is somewhat artificial to us because of the ificant overlap between the stages. Furthermore, it was possible to exit or terminate the cycle at different stages, as indicated in Figure 1. The idea that extramarital affairs occurred in a cycle was brought into sharp focus in the first female interview.
She explained how he had hidden the affair. She accidentally stumbled upon a text message in his telephone from his girlfriend. When Maryanne called the woman, she discovered they had been having an affair for over a year. After she confronted Chris about the affair, he ended it. Six months later, he d the affair. Thereafter, in each interview, we sought for a chronology of extramarital affairs in order to establish if there was a pattern of how they occurred.
Almost all reports on concurrent sexual activity reported that some kind of dissatisfaction initiated affairs, as indicated in Figure 1. Nevertheless, there were two types of dissatisfaction described by participants. Some described acute dissatisfaction that was a product of temporarily unmet needs in the marriage.
Other participants described chronic dissatisfaction with the spouse. Similar studies in Zimbabwe and Tanzania also indicate that dissatisfaction about various aspects of the marriage may result in concurrent sexual activity. Contrary narratives were given by some participants who reported that even though they were sometimes dissatisfied with their marriage, they did not engage in affairs. They reported being able to have respectful, frank discussions about the sources of the dissatisfaction with their spouse and tly addressing the dissatisfaction.
Depending on the source of dissatisfaction, different types of extramarital relationships were developed, as described in the next section. The complexities of these relationships were highlighted by men who reported finding potential partners but choosing not to go ahead with the affair due to potential feelings of guilt or anxiety about being caught.
It would have been useful to know how the desires or emotions of extramarital partners affected the decision not to proceed with an affair. However, we did not explore them in this study. Reports of secrecy and deception once extramarital affairs commenced were common and this formed stage 3, as shown in Figure 1. Such presumptions have been noted in earlier studies, both in terms of married women being the last to know about an affair and only discovering affairs after diagnosis of HIV.
However, in our study, deception and secrecy were important aspects of affairs. Deception of a spouse was explained as being necessary to protect the marriage from the stigma and trauma of divorce. Having said this, not all men were secretive about their affairs. Openness about extramarital affairs often occurred in marriages where the man thought he had proprietary rights over his wife, as described in our study. My husband used to receive phone calls from his girlfriends in my presence and discuss unheard of sexual details zvinhu zvisingaite with them!
Maybe they did it to hurt me. Because I thought I was worthless. I just ignored them. Female interview respondent, aged 44 years. The final stage of the affair was when the dissatisfaction was addressed, as shown in Figure 1. Once the dissatisfaction was perceived to be addressed, there appeared to be two possible outcomes.
The extramarital relationship could be terminated if the need or needs that had been unmet were perceived to be fully addressed in the marriage. For example, Mary in the earlier excerpt explained that after 4 years of marital counselling, their emotional and sexual relationship was more satisfying and she felt her husband had become monogamous.
Other discourses on terminating affairs centered on surreptitious affairs being discovered or nearly being discovered. For other men, termination of the affair occurred when the extramarital partner discovered that they were married. However, when the need was still unmet in the marriage, dissatisfaction would cause the cycle of extramarital affairs to continue. Other qualitative studies on concurrent sexual activity in African marriages have documented differences in types of extramarital relationships. For example, some men were said to have extramarital relations with a small house, girlfriend, and sex workers concurrently.
On the other hand, the extramarital partners were capable of having concurrent sexual relationships of their own, in which the same woman could be a casual partner, sex worker, girlfriend, or small house to different men, thus creating complex and risky sexual networks.
Firstly, a sex worker relationship was depicted as a temporary relationship between a client and a sexual services provider. Participants explained that for the sex worker the relationship was about money and for the client, sexual pleasure.
There was no expectation on either side of emotional intimacy, although such feelings could develop. There was a report of another type of casual sexual relationship which stemmed from existing friendships or acquaintances. He was unsure but suspected that she got payment for sex because of their low financial status.
Other forms of casual sex did not involve monetary payment and were just one-off incidents. The development of emotional intimacy marked the vague transition from casual partner or sex worker to regular sexual partner as described by Richard:. The problem with men is that we love prostitutes. It is right for us to do so. Male interview respondent, aged 37 years.
Here, Richard suggested that going to the same prostitute three times gave both of them a sense of familiarity tajairirana. While money was involved with the sex worker, it was not viewed as direct payment for sex but given as financial support. In the narratives, this was because such a woman was no longer just a sex worker. This finding supports the sawtooth hypothesis, which posits that within a close relationship condom use will decrease over time, creating a sawtooth pattern. As we analyzed the data, we inferred that the emotional attachment was a mutual experience which resulted in some form of mutual trust and a consequent decrease in condom use.
It can be inferred that these relationships carried a higher risk of HIV transmission than with casual encounters with sex workers because of the reduced condom use. This was the only extramarital relationship in which love rudo and romance kudanana were mentioned. There is no man who can use condoms on ten occasions with the same person, impossible! How safe are we gentlemen?
Male focus group participant, aged 40 years. From their narratives, this extramarital relationship was perceived as carrying the greatest risk of exposure to HIV.Zimbabwe wives free
email: [email protected] - phone:(987) 839-2791 x 7598
Welcome to Zimbabwe Women Lawyers Association (ZWLA)